Viral rhodopsins 1 are an unique family of light-gated cation channels - Université Grenoble Alpes Accéder directement au contenu
Article Dans Une Revue Nature Communications Année : 2020

Viral rhodopsins 1 are an unique family of light-gated cation channels

Tobias Moser
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Valentin I. Gordeliy
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Résumé

Phytoplankton is the base of the marine food chain as well as oxygen and carbon cycles and thus plays a global role in climate and ecology. Nucleocytoplasmic Large DNA Viruses that infect phytoplankton organisms and regulate the phytoplankton dynamics encompass genes of rhodopsins of two distinct families. Here, we present a functional and structural characterization of two proteins of viral rhodopsin group 1, OLPVR1 and VirChR1. Functional analysis of VirChR1 shows that it is a highly selective, Na+/K+-conducting channel and, in contrast to known cation channelrhodopsins, it is impermeable to Ca2+ ions. We show that, upon illumination, VirChR1 is able to drive neural firing. The 1.4 Å resolution structure of OLPVR1 reveals remarkable differences from the known channelrhodopsins and a unique ion-conducting pathway. Thus, viral rhodopsins 1 represent a unique, large group of light-gated channels (viral channelrhodopsins, VirChR1s). In nature, VirChR1s likely mediate phototaxis of algae enhancing the host anabolic processes to support virus reproduction, and therefore, might play a major role in global phytoplankton dynamics. Moreover, VirChR1s have unique potential for optogenetics as they lack possibly noxious Ca2+ permeability.
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Dates et versions

hal-03024780 , version 1 (26-11-2020)

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Dmitrii Zabelskii, Alexey Alekseev, Kirill Kovalev, Vladan Rankovic, Taras Balandin, et al.. Viral rhodopsins 1 are an unique family of light-gated cation channels. Nature Communications, 2020, 11 (1), ⟨10.1038/s41467-020-19457-7⟩. ⟨hal-03024780⟩
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