C. Chagas, Nova tripanozomiaze humana: estudos sobre a morfolojia e o ciclo evolutivo do Schizotrypanum cruzi n. g., n. sp., ajente etiolojico de nova entidade morbida do homem, Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol.1, pp.159-218, 1909.

D. Steverding, The history of Chagas disease, Parasites & Vectors, vol.7, issue.1, p.317, 2014.

, World Health Organization, Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis) Fact Sheet N ° 340, World Health Organization, 2015.

A. L. Ribeiro, M. P. Nunes, M. M. Teixeira, and M. O. Rocha, Diagnosis and management of Chagas disease and cardiomyopathy, Nature Reviews Cardiology, vol.9, issue.10, pp.576-589, 2012.

J. A. Marin-neto, O. C. Almeida-filho, A. Pazin-filho, and B. C. Maciel, Indeterminate form of Chagas disease. Proposal of new diagnostic criteria and perspectives for early treatment of cardiomyopathy, Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, vol.79, issue.6, pp.623-627, 2002.

A. F. Henao-martinez, D. A. Schwartz, and I. V. Yang, Chagasic cardiomyopathy, from acute to chronic: is this mediated by host susceptibility factors?, Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene, vol.106, issue.9, pp.521-527, 2012.

M. A. Rossi, Fibrosis and inflammatory cells in human chronic chagasic myocarditis: scanning electron microscopy and immunohistochemical observations, International Journal of Cardiology, vol.66, issue.2, pp.183-194, 1998.

A. Leask and D. J. Abraham, TGF-? signaling and the fibrotic response, The FASEB Journal, vol.18, issue.7, pp.816-827, 2004.

J. Massague, TGF-? signal transduction, Annual Review of Biochemistry, vol.67, issue.1, pp.753-791, 1998.

T. C. Araújo-jorge, M. C. Waghabi, and A. M. Hasslocher-moreno, Implication of transforming growth factor-?1 in Chagas disease myocardiopathy, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol.186, issue.12, pp.1823-1828, 2002.

R. M. Saraiva, M. C. Waghabi, and M. F. Vilela, Predictive value of transforming growth factor-?1 in Chagas disease: towards a biomarker surrogate of clinical outcome, Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene, vol.107, issue.8, pp.518-525, 2013.

R. R. Ferreira, E. M. Souza, and F. L. De-oliveira, Proteins involved on TGF-? pathway are up-regulated during the acute phase of experimental Chagas disease, Immunobiology, vol.221, issue.5, pp.587-594, 2016.

M. C. Waghabi, M. Keramidas, and C. M. Calvet, SB-431542, a transforming growth factor ? inhibitor, impairs Trypanosoma cruzi infection in cardiomyocytes and parasite cycle completion, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.51, issue.8, pp.2905-2910, 2007.

M. C. Waghabi, E. M. Souza, and G. M. De-oliveira, Pharmacological inhibition of transforming growth factor ? signaling decreases infection and prevents heart damage in acute Chagas' disease, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.53, issue.11, pp.4694-4701, 2009.

F. L. Oliveira, T. C. Araújo-jorge, and E. M. De-souza, Oral administration of GW788388, an inhibitor of transforming growth factor beta signaling, prevents heart fibrosis in Chagas disease, PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol.6, issue.6, p.1696, 2012.

D. Fujii, J. E. Brissenden, R. Derynck, and U. Francke, Transforming growth factor ? gene maps to human chromosome 19 long arm and to mouse chromosome 7, Somatic Cell and Molecular Genetics, vol.12, issue.3, pp.281-288, 1986.

P. Syrris, N. D. Carter, and J. C. Metcalfe, Transforming growth factor-?1 gene polymorphisms and coronary artery disease, Clinical Science, vol.95, issue.6, pp.659-667, 1998.

H. Susianti, K. Handono, B. B. Purnomo, N. Widodo, A. Gunawan et al., Changes to signal peptide and the level of transforming growth factor-?1 due to T869C polymorphism of TGF ?1 associated with lupus renal fibrosis, SpringerPlus, vol.3, issue.1, p.514, 2014.

E. K. Luedecking, S. T. Dekosky, H. Mehdi, M. Ganguli, and M. I. Kamboh, Analysis of genetic polymorphisms in the transforming growth factor-?1 gene and the risk of Alzheimer's disease, Human Genetics, vol.106, issue.5, pp.565-569, 2000.

, Disease Markers

D. J. Grainger, K. Heathcote, and M. Chiano, Genetic control of the circulating concentration of transforming growth factor type ?1, Human Molecular Genetics, vol.8, issue.1, pp.93-97, 1999.

R. Shah, C. K. Hurley, and P. E. Posch, A molecular mechanism for the differential regulation of TGF-?1 expression due to the common SNP ?509C-T (c. ?1347C > T), Human Genetics, vol.120, issue.4, pp.461-469, 2006.

M. R. Awad, A. El-gamel, P. Hasleton, D. M. Turner, P. J. Sinnott et al., Genotypic variation in the transforming growth factor-?1 gene: association with transforming growth factor-?1 production, fibrotic lung disease, and graft fibrosis after lung transplantation, Transplantation, vol.66, issue.8, pp.1014-1020, 1998.

R. A. Najar, S. M. Ghaderian, and A. S. Panah, Association of transforming growth factor-?1 gene polymorphisms with genetic susceptibility to acute myocardial infarction, The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, vol.342, issue.5, pp.365-370, 2011.

H. Y. Xu, X. W. Hou, L. F. Wang, N. F. Wang, and J. Xu, Association between transforming growth factor ?1 polymorphisms and left ventricle hypertrophy in essential hypertensive subjects, Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol.335, issue.1-2, pp.13-17, 2010.

J. E. Calzada, Y. Beraun, C. I. Gonzalez, and J. Martin, Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF?1) gene polymorphisms and Chagas disease susceptibility in Peruvian and Colombian patients, Cytokine, vol.45, issue.3, pp.149-153, 2009.

J. S. Lapa, R. M. Saraiva, and A. M. Hasslocher-moreno, Dealing with initial inconclusive serological results for chronic Chagas disease in clinical practice, European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, vol.31, issue.6, pp.965-974, 2012.

J. C. Dias, A. N. Ramos, and E. D. Gontijo, 2nd Brazilian Consensus on Chagas Disease, vol.49, pp.3-60, 2015.

I. Castro, J. P. De-andrade, and A. A. De-paola, I Latin American guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Chagas cardiomyopathy, Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, vol.97, issue.2, pp.1-48, 2011.

C. C. Grabulosa, M. C. Batista, and M. Cendoroglo, Frequency of TGF-? and IFN-? genotype as risk factors for acute kidney injury and death in intensive care unit patients, BioMed Research International, vol.2014, 2014.

B. Woolf, On estimating the relation between blood group and disease, Annals of Human Genetics, vol.19, issue.4, pp.251-253, 1955.

J. B. Haldane, The estimation and significance of the logarithm of a ratio of frequencies, Annals of Human Genetics, vol.20, issue.4, pp.309-311, 1956.

F. Saloum-de-neves-manta, R. Pereira, and R. Vianna, Revisiting the genetic ancestry of Brazilians using autosomal AIMindels, PLoS One, vol.8, issue.9, p.75145, 2013.

R. H. Vasconcelos, S. M. Montenegro, E. A. Azevedo, Y. M. Gomes, and C. N. Morais, Genetic susceptibility to chronic Chagas disease: an overview of single nucleotide polymorphisms of cytokine genes, Cytokine, vol.59, issue.2, pp.203-208, 2012.

L. G. Nogueira, A. F. Frade, and B. M. Ianni, Functional IL18 polymorphism and susceptibility to chronic Chagas disease, Cytokine, vol.73, issue.1, pp.79-83, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01592692

T. C. Araujo-jorge, M. C. Waghabi, S. Bailly, and J. J. Feige, The TGF-? pathway as an emerging target for Chagas disease therapy, Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol.92, issue.5, pp.613-621, 2012.

M. C. Waghabi, M. Keramidas, J. J. Feige, T. C. Araujo-jorge, and S. Bailly, Activation of transforming growth factor ? by Trypanosoma cruzi, Cellular Microbiology, vol.7, issue.4, pp.511-517, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00375793

M. C. Waghabi, M. Keramidas, and S. Bailly, Uptake of host cell transforming growth factor-? by Trypanosoma cruzi amastigotes in cardiomyocytes: potential role in parasite cycle completion, The American Journal of Pathology, vol.167, issue.4, pp.993-1003, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00207611

J. S. Silva, D. R. Twardzik, and S. G. Reed, Regulation of Trypanosoma cruzi infections in vitro and in vivo by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.174, issue.3, pp.539-545, 1991.

M. A. Rossi, The pattern of myocardial fibrosis in chronic Chagas' heart disease, International Journal of Cardiology, vol.30, issue.3, pp.335-340, 1991.

A. R. Pérez, S. D. Silva-barbosa, and L. R. Berbert, Immunoneuroendocrine alterations in patients with progressive forms of chronic Chagas disease, Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol.235, issue.1-2, pp.84-90, 2011.

E. H. Clark, M. A. Marks, and R. H. Gilman, Circulating serum markers and QRS scar score in Chagas cardiomyopathy, The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol.92, issue.1, pp.39-44, 2015.
DOI : 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0246

URL : http://www.ajtmh.org/deliver/fulltext/14761645/92/1/39.pdf?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.14-0246&mimeType=pdf&containerItemId=content/journals/14761645

M. M. Reis, M. L. Higuchi, V. D. Aiello, and L. A. Benvenuti, Growth factors in the myocardium of patients with chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy, Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, vol.33, issue.6, pp.509-518, 2000.

L. G. Nogueira, R. H. Santos, and A. I. Fiorelli, Myocardial gene expression of T-bet, GATA-3, Ror-?t, FoxP3, and hallmark cytokines in chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy: an essentially unopposed T H 1-type response, Mediators of Inflammation, vol.2014, 2014.

F. Vilas-boas, G. S. Feitosa, and M. B. Soares, Invasive and noninvasive correlations of B-type natriuretic peptide in patients with heart failure due to Chagas cardiomyopathy, Congestive Heart Failure, vol.14, issue.3, pp.121-126, 2008.

A. Ruiz-linares, K. Adhikari, and V. Acuña-alonzo, Admixture in Latin America: geographic structure, phenotypic diversity and self-perception of ancestry based on 7,342 individuals, PLoS Genetics, vol.10, issue.9, p.1004572, 2014.

C. A. Nascimento, V. A. Gomes, and S. K. Silva, Left atrial and left ventricular diastolic function in chronic Chagas disease, Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, vol.26, issue.12, pp.1424-1433, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.echo.2013.08.018

W. O. Dutra, C. A. Menezes, L. M. Magalhaes, and K. J. Gollob, Immunoregulatory networks in human Chagas disease, Parasite Immunology, vol.36, issue.8, pp.377-387, 2014.
DOI : 10.1111/pim.12107

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc4143493?pdf=render

B. S. Hall and M. A. Pereira, Dual role for transforming growth factor ?-dependent signaling in Trypanosoma cruzi infection of mammalian cells, Infection and Immunity, vol.68, issue.4, pp.2077-2081, 2000.

, Disease Markers

D. B. Rocha-rodrigues, M. A. Reis, and A. Romano, In situ expression of regulatory cytokines by heart inflammatory cells in Chagas' disease patients with heart failure, Clinical and Developmental Immunology, vol.2012, 2012.

R. R. Ferreira, F. S. Madeira, and G. F. Alves, TGF-? polymorphisms are a risk factor for Chagas disease, 5a Edição do Ciclo de Palestras Carlos Chagas
DOI : 10.1155/2018/4579198

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02010997