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Chronic Exposure to Low-Level Cadmium in Diabetes: Role of Oxidative Stress and Comparison with Polychlorinated Biphenyls

Abstract : Among the most important physiological functions, maintenance of the oxidation reduction equilibrium in cells stands out as a major homeostatic event. Many environmental contaminants efficiently trap cellular reducing compounds, but the actual importance of this mode of toxicity is far from being precisely known. This statement applies to cases of slowly developing chronic diseases, such as neurodegenerations, diabetes, and many others. The involvement of oxidative challenge in diabetes is considered in connection with chronic dietary exposure to low-level concentrations of cadmium. Comparison is made with polychlorobiphenyl molecules (PCB): they are structurally unrelated to cadmium, they preferentially distribute into different organs than cadmium, and they follow different metabolic pathways. Yet, they have also pro-oxidative properties, and they are associated with diabetes. Since neither cadmium nor PCB is a direct oxidant, they both follow indirect pathways to shift the redox equilibrium. Thus, a difference must be made between the adaptable response of the organism, i.e. the anti-oxidant response, and the irreversible damage generated by oxidizing species, i.e. oxidative damage, when exposure occurs at low concentrations. The approximate border between high and low levels of exposure is estimated in this review from the available relevant data, and the strengths and weaknesses of experimental models are delineated. Eventually, chronic low level exposure to these contaminants sparks cellular responses setting ground for dysfunction and disease, such as diabetes: oxidative damage is an accompanying phenomenon and not necessarily an early mechanism of toxicity.
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Contributeur : Sarah Hamant <>
Soumis le : mardi 20 novembre 2018 - 15:19:56
Dernière modification le : samedi 8 août 2020 - 03:31:46



Adeline Jacquet, Fayçal Ounnas, Marine Lénon, Josiane Arnaud, Christine Demeilliers, et al.. Chronic Exposure to Low-Level Cadmium in Diabetes: Role of Oxidative Stress and Comparison with Polychlorinated Biphenyls. Current Drug Targets, Bentham Science Publishers, 2016, 17 (12), pp.1385 - 1413. ⟨10.2174/1389450116666150531151228⟩. ⟨hal-01928455⟩



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