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Leadership au masculin et au féminin, les différences entre les hommes et les femmes dans la manière de diriger : étude comparative dans le secteur tertiaire en France et au Gabon

Abstract : In view of the unequal distribution of men and women in certain positions and the under representativeness of women at certain hierarchical levels, the question of the difference between male leadership and female leadership is very acute. Indeed, wondering what are the differences between men and women in the way of directing and what influence these differences have on the level of satisfaction of the subordinates led us to carry out this comparative research in the tertiary sector between France and Gabon. To do this, three studies were conducted. The first study focuses on the analysis of the activities of senior managers (Guilbert & Lancry, 2007) on the issue of management of employees. This study has the particularity of being geared towards managers and aims to highlight the differences in terms of leadership and activities that exist between men and women managers. The second study deals with the description by subordinates of men and women in a leadership position. The aim here is to find out which characteristics, male or female (Tostain, 1993, Bem, 1974) describe these two heads, on one hand. On the other hand, which of these descriptions is closest to their description of the ideal manager? The third study focuses on the analysis of the leadership style of men and women managers in our sample by their subordinates and the influence of these leadership styles on the job satisfaction of the latter. Guided by samples of 20 participants (study 1), 444 participants (study 2) and 433 participants (study 3), the results show us, on the one hand, that there are no significant differences between men and women in the management of subordinates. It appears that men and women leaders maintain close relations with their subordinates with a small hierarchical distance. Men leaders adopt feminine specificities (listening, democracy ...) and women adopt masculine specificities (individualism, firmness ...). On the other hand, it also appears that the ideal leader is presented with more feminine than male characteristics and that men and women leader in leadership positions are presented with masculine and feminine characteristics in Gabon, and masculine characteristics in France. Finally, regarding the leadership style, the results show that in Gabon there are differences between men and women because men are transactional in their leadership style and women make a mix of transactional and transformational styles. And in France, there are no differences between men and women in terms of leadership style. These results allow us to show that the differences between the northern countries, such as France, and the southern countries, such as Gabon, seem to be due to the cultural variable, therefore related to the environmental and cultural context as might think Tedongmo Teko and Bapes Ba Bapes (2010). It would therefore be interesting to bring into play the cultural variable and the leadership in a post-thesis research.
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Liziane Minkoue Pira. Leadership au masculin et au féminin, les différences entre les hommes et les femmes dans la manière de diriger : étude comparative dans le secteur tertiaire en France et au Gabon. Psychologie. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAH044⟩. ⟨tel-03173680⟩

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