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L'habitat perché et le peuplement entre Antiquité tardive et haut Moyen Âge dans le massif jurassien

Abstract : Hillfort and population between late antiquity and high Middle Ages in the massif of the Jura mountains Thirty years of archaeology considerably enriched knowledge of late antiquity and of high Middle Ages in the field of the habitat. But all facets of occupation are not studied yet. So, Hillforts are rediscovered after the neglect into which had plunged them a factual and pessimistic historiographic reading, showy in these sites of simple punctual shelters where would have taken refuge a frightened population by «barbaric invasions». However identified by researches pioneers of the local erudite persons since the end of the XVIIIth century, this oppida, castra and castella signalled notably in the texts of Gregory de Tour, are fast abandoned and consider then as devoid of interest. Several authors however had drawn attention to this form of occupation, as Gabriel Fournier (1962) in Auvergne and Paul-Albert Février (1978) in the South of France, but these Hillforts stayed outside all big syntheses on the habitat. Except some punctual searches, it is necessary to wait for 2000s to see being born of research plans on these full themes, the one in Mediterranean (Schneider 2001), other one in Swore it (Billoin, Gandel on 2013). These Hillforts appear since then much more many than he was imagined, revealing a general phenomenon not stationed in a southern tradition. The perchement of the habitat expresses itself with force in the variety of occupations, going of modest military posts, in various fortifications linked to the defence of network viaire, where still true stuck agglomerations endowed with built surrounding wall, with church and/or with élitaires buildings of type. The transience or the stability of some of them until Carolingian period and their importance in the woof of the population constitute so many advances and innovative problems put down by these stuck establishments which return obsolete the traditional interpretative diagramme of epiphenomenon linked to insecurity. The objective of this job is to analyse the founding elements and the modalities of establishment of these Hillforts replaced in the woof of the population between late antiquity and high Middle Ages in the massif of Jura. Between France and Switzerland, this geographical frame is large enough to receive an abundant and present material double interest to be a sector of the Gaul of the centre is still badly known, of transition between a Mediterranean socioeconomic model and a northern model, between Roman and barbaric influence.
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David Billoin. L'habitat perché et le peuplement entre Antiquité tardive et haut Moyen Âge dans le massif jurassien. Histoire. Université Paul Valéry - Montpellier III, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020MON30016⟩. ⟨tel-03215157v2⟩

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