Flexibility issues related to the development of network infrastructures for the massive integration of variable renewable energies into the electricity system by 2100

Abstract : The power system is facing a major shift with the large-scale development of VRES (Variable Renewable Energy Sources). The traditional architecture was built vertically and centralized to ensure the robustness and reliability of the system. However, VRES are intermittent and less predictable. To face such a challenge, the system needs to add more flexibility with new options such as demand side management, storage technologies and VRES curtailment. In addition, renewable energies potentials are unevenly distributed in Europe and, with high shares of VRES, power flows exchanges will increase between specific regions. As a result, the existing transmission grid would face congestions and these flexibility options might not be sufficient to alleviate these power bottlenecks. To analyse these impacts, the work carried out in this thesis uses the long-term energy model POLES (Prospective Outlook on Longterm Energy Systems) coupled with the new European power sector module EUTGRID (European Transmission Grid Investment and Dispatch). It includes a detailed transmission grid infrastructure and more realistic power flows with a linearized optimal power flow (DCOPF). A grid investment mechanism is also incorporated to determine the grid investments based on nodal prices. This new model coupling enables to get a dynamic evolution of the transmission grid. The role of the transmission grid is being assessed and compared with other flexibility options. Results show that congestions cannot be alleviated only with flexibility options but also with an important increase of grid investments. Finally, an exploratory work is being carried with the introduction of generic distribution grids (urban, semi-urban and rural) in EUTGRID. The results show that the reinforcements can be slightly delayed with a greater use of back-up technologies and an increase of total CO2 emissions.
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Stéphane Allard. Flexibility issues related to the development of network infrastructures for the massive integration of variable renewable energies into the electricity system by 2100. Electric power. Communauté Université Grenoble Alpes, 2018. English. ⟨tel-02066662⟩

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