Prediction of traction forces of motile cells

Clément Roux 1 Alain Duperray 2 Valérie Laurent 1 Richard Michel 1 Valentina Peschetola 1 Claude Verdier 1 Jocelyn Etienne 1
1 LIPHY-DYFCOM
LIPhy - Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Physique [Saint Martin d’Hères]
2 INSERM U823, équipe 8 (Immunologie Analytique des Pathologies Chroniques)
INSERM U823 - Institut d'oncologie/développement Albert Bonniot de Grenoble
Abstract : When crawling on a flat substrate, living cells exert forces on it via adhesive contacts, enabling them to build up tension within their cytoskeleton and to change shape. The measurement of these forces has been made possible by traction force microscopy (TFM), a technique which has allowed us to obtain time-resolved traction force maps during cell migration. This cell " footprint " is however not sufficient in order to understand the details of the mechanics of migration, that is, how cytoskeletal elements (respectively, adhesion complexes) are put under tension and reinforce or deform (respectively, mature and/or unbind) as a result. In a recent paper, we have validated a rheological model of actomyosin linking tension, deformation and myosin activity. Here, we complement this model with tentative models of the mechanics of adhesion and explore how closely these models can predict the traction forces that we recover from experimental measurements during cell migration. The resulting mathematical problem is a PDE set on the experimentally observed domain, which we solve using a finite-element approach.
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Interface Focus, Royal Society publishing, 2016, Theme issue ‘Coupling geometric partial differential equations with physics for cell morphology, motility and pattern formation’ organized by Rudolf Leube, Anotida Madvamuse, Rudolf Merkel and Hans Othmer, 6 (5), 〈10.1098/rsfs.2016.0042 〉
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Clément Roux, Alain Duperray, Valérie Laurent, Richard Michel, Valentina Peschetola, et al.. Prediction of traction forces of motile cells. Interface Focus, Royal Society publishing, 2016, Theme issue ‘Coupling geometric partial differential equations with physics for cell morphology, motility and pattern formation’ organized by Rudolf Leube, Anotida Madvamuse, Rudolf Merkel and Hans Othmer, 6 (5), 〈10.1098/rsfs.2016.0042 〉. 〈hal-01391213〉

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